7 Major Health Examinations
- Eye examination / vision testing
- Hearing test
- Dental exam
- Pulse rate
- Mental exam
- Measuring the weight
- Measuring of height
I. Eye examination
- Vision tests are not equivalent to eye examination.
- Vision tests are a part of an eye exam to determine if there is any reduction in the ability to see.
- Most vision tests check visual acuity that is the sharpness of central vision.
- Refractive errors, such as myopia (shortsightedness), hypermetropia (farsightedness) and astigmatism are the most common causes of visual acuity.
The first step in the eye-screening exam is to assess the person’s visual acuity by using either a standardized visual acuity chart or a near card for bedside use.
Vision Eyesight Testing / visual acuity test
- It is the simplest and most common ways to check a person’s eye sight
- it tests the focus of your eyes and how you can se detail in near and far distances
- this evolves reading and looking at letters and symbols of different shapes and sizes on an eye chart
- this test also tests for problems such as farsightedness and near sidedness
- Refraction is a test that measures the eyes’ need for corrective lenses (refractive error).
- It is usually done after a visual acuity test.
- Refractive errors, such as nearsightedness or farsightedness, occur when light rays entering the eye do not focus exactly on the nerve layer (retina) at the back of the eye.
- This causes blurred vision.
- Refraction is done as a routine part of an eye examination for people who already wear glasses or contact lenses, but it will also be done if the results of the other visual acuity tests show that your eyesight is below normal and can be corrected by glasses.
Vision field tests
- A person’s visual field is the entire area that a person see’s when the person’s gaze is fixed in one direction.
- This tests can help detect eye diseases such as macular degeneration and glaucoma, or any nervous system problems caused by a stroke or head injury.
- These problems can limit a person’s ability to see objects clearly in the entire visual field or create blind spots.
- The complete visual field is seen by both eyes at the same time, and it includes the central visual field—which detects the highest degree of detail—and the peripheral visual fields.
- Normally, a person’s visual field forms a rough circle with a natural blind spot that is some where in the middle.
- There are several tests that can be done to help detect reduced visual range and abnormal blind spots.
Color Vision Tests
- Color vision tests check your ability to distinguish colors.
- It is also used to test for color blindness in people with retinal or optic nerve disease or a family history of color blindness.
- The most commonly used color vision test involves tracing colored numbers that are hidden in a background of colored dots.
- Color vision tests only detect a problem; further testing is needed to identify what is causing the problem.
II. Hearing Test
- A hearing test provides an evaluation of the sensitivity of a person’s sense of hearing and is most often performed by an audiologist using an audiometer.
- An audiometer is used to determine a person’s hearing sensitivity at different frequencies.
- There are other hearing tests such as Weber test and Rinne test.
III. Dental Examination / Dental Tests
- A dental test is complete if it allows identification of all active factors that are capable of causing or contributing to the deterioration of oral health or function.
- It is incomplete if it does not provide enough information to develop a total treatment plan aimed at optimum maintainability of the teeth and their supporting structures.
The components of a complete exam consist of:
Complete series of x-rays
Accurate Diagnostic Models Mouted on an Articulator utilizing a facebow and centric relation bite
IV. Measuring Weight
- Adults who are overweight and have weight related medical problems or a family history of such problems can benefit from weight loss.
- Even a small weight loss can improve your overall general health by lowering your blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
- It is important to maintain a healthy weight for protection against obesity related illness or disability.
- Underweight may need to gain some weight, this should be done as part of a balanced and nutritious diet.
- Weight is in good range – eating the correct amount of food to keep your weight in the desirable range for health.
- Overweight – cut down on the amount you’re eating, especially food and drinks high in fat or sugar, and try to do more physical activity.
Being over weight can increase your risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and osteoarthritis.
How to Measure Weight Accurately
1. Use a digital scale. Feet on a scale. Place the scale on firm floor rather than carpet.
2. Remove shoes and heavy clothing, such as sweaters.
3. Stand with both feet in the center of the scale.
4. Record the weight to the nearest decimal fraction.
V. Measuring Height
- Remove shoes, bulky clothing, and hair ornaments, and unbraid hair that interferes with the measurement.
- Take the height measurement on flooring has a flat surface such as a wall with no molding.
- Stand with feet flat, together, and against the wall. Legs are straight, arms are at sides, and shoulders are level.
- Look straight ahead and that the line of sight is parallel with the floor.
- Accurately record the height to the nearest 1/8th inch or 0.1 centimeter.
VI. Pulse Measurement
- Your pulse is the rate at which your heart beats.
- Your pulse is usually called your heart rate, which is the number of times your heart beats each minute (bpm).
- The pulse rate can give important information about overall health and fitness.
- It is measured as part of a physical exam.
- Your pulse usually has a strong steady or regular rhythm.
- It can be performed by anyone by putting pressure on any artery in which pulsations can be felt. Pulses can also be felt behind the knee, on top of the foot, or in the neck, temple, or groin.
- An occasional pause or extra beat is normal.
- Your heart rate will speed up a little when you breathe deeply.
· A fast heart rate may be caused by:
1. Activity or exercise.
5. Heart disease.
6. An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).
7. Medicine used to treat asthma.
8. Stimulants such as caffeine, amphetamines, diet pills, and cigarettes.
9. Drinking alcohol.
· A slow resting heart rate may be caused by:
1. Heart disease.
2. Heart medicine.
3. High levels of fitness.
4. An underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).
· A weak pulse may be caused by:
1. A blood clot in your arm or leg.
2. Diseases of the blood vessels (peripheral arterial disease).
3. Heart disease and heart failure.
VII. Mental Examination
- A psychological evaluation or mental examination is an examination into a person’s mental health by a mental health professional such as a psychologist.
- A psychological evaluation may result in a diagnosis of a mental illness.
- It is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.
- A structured way of observing and describing a patient’s current state of mind, under the domains of appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought process, thought content, perception, cognition, insight and judgement.
- The data are collected through a combination of direct and indirect means: unstructured observation while obtaining the biographical and social information, focused questions about current symptoms, and formalised psychological tests.