The Nervous System

  • The nervous system is the system of cells, tissues and body organs and is responsible for sending, receiving, and processing nerve impulses through the body.
  • The nervous system processes and interprets the information and determines what actions are to be taken.
  • It also controls and regulates body’s activities.
Parts of the Nervous System


The Brain

  • It is the major organ of the nervous system and made up of  soft tissues and nerves.  It is protected by the hard bones of the skull.

Regions of the Brain:

  1. The Cerebrum
  2. The Cerebellum
  3. The Medulla oblongata

             The Cerebrum

  • Is the largest part of the brain.
  • It control body’s activities.
  • It is the area for memory, analyzing and reasoning.
  • Movements of different parts of the body also controlled by Cerebrum.
  • In the outer parts of the cerebrum, there are folds or creases containing numerous nerve cells called convolutions.
  • The cerebrum divides into two hemispheres:  the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body.

             The Cerebellum

  • It is the smaller region of the brain that is located at the back just below the cerebrum.
  • It controls your physical balance and physical coordination.
  • It decides on a physical activity / voluntary activity of the body such as walking, running, jumping, playing.

             The Medulla Oblongata

  • It is the smallest region of the brain.
  • Medulla Oblongata connects the brain to the spinal cord.
  • It controls involuntary activity of the body.  These involuntary activities are very important functions of some parts of our body that happen without control.  These includes:  heart rate, breathing, and the muscular action of the digestive tracts.  This also controls other involuntary activities like coughing, swallowing, and sneezing.

The Spinal Cord

  • It is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue; a part of the Central Nervous System that is connected to the brain.
  • The spinal cord is made up of many nerve cells.  These nerve cells extend from the brain to the very end of the spinal column branching out to the different parts of the body.  Each of these nerve cells carries messages either toward the spinal cord or away from the spinal cord.
  • The spinal cord performs two main functions for the nervous system:  (1) it relays the messages from the brain to the different parts of the body, (2) the spinal cord controls some important body actions that do not involve the brain.  These actions are called reflexes.  They are automatic responses of the body to certain situations.

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